Research In Viral Eradication of HIV Reservoirs | Not Recruiting
Research In Viral Eradication of HI... | Not Recruiting
Research In Viral Eradication of HIV Reservoirs

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Medical Conditions
  • HIV
Primary Contact Details
Unfortunately contact details are not available for this trial.
Recruitment Status
Not Recruiting
Trial source and source ID number
This information is designed to help you decide whether this trial is of interest. In some cases it is provided as a link to more detailed patient information or it may still be awaited from the organisation running the trial. Please look again shortly if the information you need is not here or, if named, contact the researcher named above.
This study will be a two-arm prospective 1:1 randomised controlled trial comparing:

Arm A: cART preferably including raltegravir (combination ART cART - control) Arm B: cART preferably including raltegravir (cART) plus ChAdV63.HIVconsv (ChAd) prime and MVA.HIVconsv (MVA) boost vaccines; followed by a 28-day course of vorinostat (10 doses in total).

We hypothesise that this intervention in primary HIV infection will confer a significant reduction in the latent HIV reservoir when compared with cART alone.
Research Details
  • The study design is a two-arm, open label randomised study. Eligible participants are recruited from two participant cohorts (Cohort I - Recently diagnosed or Cohort II - Previously diagnosed with HIV). All participants receive combination ART (cART) for the duration of the intervention phase of the study (Cohort I: 42 weeks, Cohort II: 18 weeks). In patients meeting the criteria for randomisation (eligibility assessed at week 22/screening), participants will either continue cART or receive an intervention consisting of two anti-HIV vaccines separated by 8 weeks followed by 10 doses of the HDACi, vorinostat, in addition to cART. We hypothesise that the prime-boost vaccination will result in the generation of vaccine induced HIV specific CTLs that will recognise HDACi-activated cells of the HIV reservoir and destroy them. The net effect will be a greater reduction in the HIV reservoir defined as HIV total DNA in CD4+ T-cells in the cART+vaccine+HDACi compared to the cART alone. Our strategy is entirely different from previous therapeutic vaccination approaches which have been largely unsuccessful. Immunological priming to conserved HIV proteins will drive CD8+ T-lymphocyte recognition of latently-infected cells rendered immunogenic by HDACi. We anticipate that the viral antigens expressed by latently-infected cells will be unable to adapt to, or escape from, the immune response as they will be expressed directly from chromosomal DNA, avoiding the steps of the viral life-cycle that facilitate immune-driven adaptation. We have chosen a prime-boost immunisation strategy with recombinant replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus and modified vaccinia Ankara vectors, bearing conserved HIV antigens; these products have been shown to induce high titres of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells. In addition, these vaccines will drive immune responses against conserved regions of the virus that may be well preserved in individuals with PHI.

    Primary HIV Infection (PHI) is a unique period when HIV proviral reservoir is smaller than in chronic disease, is likely to be more homogeneous than in later stage disease and hence is more susceptible to immunological elimination. This provides an opportunity to use a vaccine to re-direct HIV-specific immune responses towards genetically fragile regions in the viral proteome. Immunisation in PHI should result in potent immune responses because ART initiated in PHI preserves CD4 function and early ART-mediated viral suppression limits viral diversification, reducing the chance of immune escape. The other key reason for conducting this trial in patients treated in PHI is that, in some patients, an early sustained course of ART started very early in infection may induce a state of viral remission in which therapy can be stopped without any rebound viraemia. This has been most notably reported in the VISCONTI cohort in which 'post-treatment control' was identified in 15.6% of selected individuals.

    Data from our group and others has shown that whilst there is a rapid decline in measures of total HIV DNA following ART initiation up to 6 months after seroconversion this then plateaus out to approximately 2 years after diagnosis of acute infection. Hence randomisation of individuals starting immediate ART in acute infection have comparable levels of HIV reservoirs to those who have started treatment within a similar timeframe, but have remained on suppressive therapy for up to 2 years after initiation. Furthermore, since the primary endpoint of the RIVER study design compares total HIV DNA between the two arms from randomisation to post-randomisation weeks 16 & 18 Cohorts I and II will be comparable.

    We hypothesise that the combination of HDACi with immunisation in cART-suppressed PHI will significantly impact the HIV reservoir.

    1. Patients in Cohort I - Recently diagnosed will receive combination antiretroviral therapy designed to reduce the plasma viral load as quickly as possible, hence the rationale for the preferred inclusion of raltegravir, an integrase inhibitor. Both cohorts will have been treated in PHI, which may restrict the size of the reservoir compared with people initiating ART in later stages of HIV infection. Cohort II - Previously diagnosed participants are screened the same as Cohort I and are maintained on ART throughout the study. The ART regimen is preferably a combination that includes raltegravir, as hypothetically, if vorinostat induced viral transcription an integrase inhibitor may protect uninfected cells. However, there is no evidence to support this hypothesis and the key inclusion criteria must be the continuation of a virally suppressive ART regimen throughout the study.

    2. The prime-boost vaccination is designed to enhance the killing capacity of the cytotoxic T cells. This must be given before the HDACi in order to prime and boost a maximal HIV-specific T-cell response to recognise activated viral antigen expression on reservoir cells.

    3. The HDACi is designed to cause viral transcription from latently infected cells; activate the reservoir, and in the presence of the enhanced killing capacity of the CD8+ T cells, results in killing of the cells previously harbouring latent virus, leading to further reductions in the reservoir.

    This exact combined approach in treated PHI has never previously been used, we hypothesise there will be a 50% reduction in the proviral DNA (the 'reservoir'), in this 'proof-of-concept' study, in those randomised to the vaccine-HDACi intervention compared to those receiving antiretroviral therapy alone.
Phase 2
Study Design
Sorry, this information is not available
Study Type
Drug : Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART), Drug : Raltegravir, Drug : Vorinostat, Biological : ChAdV63.HIVconsv (ChAd), Biological : MVA.HIVconsv (MVA)

Study Arm Groups : Arm A, Arm B, Arm A, Arm B, Arm B, Arm B, Arm B

Intervention Type
See Interventions above
Primary Outcome Measures
    Total HIV DNA from CD4 T-cells; Averaged across post-randomisation week 16 and 18
Secondary Outcome Measures
    Clinical and laboratory adverse events; 42 weeks; Further assessment of the HIV reservoir; 42 weeks; Studies of immune function; 42 weeks; Changes in plasma IL-6 (an inflammatory biomarker); 42 weeks; Changes in plasma hCRP (an inflammatory biomarker); 42 Weeks; Changes in plasma TNF-alpha (an inflammatory biomarker); 42 Weeks
Hamlyn E, Ewings FM, Porter K, Cooper DA, Tambussi G, Schechter M, Pedersen C, Okulicz JF, McClure M, Babiker A, Weber J, Fidler S; INSIGHT SMART and SPARTAC Investigators. Plasma HIV viral rebound following protocol-indicated cessation of ART commenced in primary and chronic HIV infection. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43754. Epub 2012 Aug 31.; 22952756; Eisele E, Siliciano RF. Redefining the viral reservoirs that prevent HIV-1 eradication. Immunity. 2012 Sep 21;37(3):377-88. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.08.010. Review.; 22999944; Coiras M, López-Huertas MR, Pérez-Olmeda M, Alcamí J. Understanding HIV-1 latency provides clues for the eradication of long-term reservoirs. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009 Nov;7(11):798-812. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2223. Review.; 19834480; Chun TW, Fauci AS. HIV reservoirs: pathogenesis and obstacles to viral eradication and cure. AIDS. 2012 Jun 19;26(10):1261-8. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328353f3f1. Review.; 22472858; Archin NM, Keedy KS, Espeseth A, Dang H, Hazuda DJ, Margolis DM. Expression of latent human immunodeficiency type 1 is induced by novel and selective histone deacetylase inhibitors. AIDS. 2009 Sep 10;23(14):1799-806. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832ec1dc.; 19590405; Hütter G, Nowak D, Mossner M, Ganepola S, Müssig A, Allers K, Schneider T, Hofmann J, Kücherer C, Blau O, Blau IW, Hofmann WK, Thiel E. Long-term control of HIV by CCR5 Delta32/Delta32 stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 12;360(7):692-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0802905.; 19213682; Sáez-Cirión A, Bacchus C, Hocqueloux L, Avettand-Fenoel V, Girault I, Lecuroux C, Potard V, Versmisse P, Melard A, Prazuck T, Descours B, Guergnon J, Viard JP, Boufassa F, Lambotte O, Goujard C, Meyer L, Costagliola D, Venet A, Pancino G, Autran B, Rouzioux C; ANRS VISCONTI Study Group. Post-treatment HIV-1 controllers with a long-term virological remission after the interruption of early initiated antiretroviral therapy ANRS VISCONTI Study. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Mar;9(3):e1003211. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003211. Epub 2013 Mar 14.; 23516360; Deeks SG. HIV: Shock and kill. Nature. 2012 Jul 25;487(7408):439-40. doi: 10.1038/487439a.; 22836995
Result Reports
Check availability of results on the website
This information is designed to help you decide whether this trial is of interest. In some cases it is provided as a link to more detailed patient information or it may still be awaited from the organisation running the trial. Please look again shortly if the information you need is not here or, if named, contact the researcher named above.
Age Range
18 Years - 60 Years
Who Can Participate
Number of Participants
Sorry, this information is not available
Participant Inclusion Criteria
    Inclusion criteria

    1. Aged ≥18 to ≤60 years old

    2. Able to give informed written consent including consent to long-term follow-up

    3. Should be enrolled within a maximum of 4 weeks of a diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection confirmed by one of the following criteria:

    1. Positive HIV-1 serology within a maximum of 12 weeks of a documented negative HIV-1 serology test result (can include point of care test (POCT) using blood for both tests)

    2. A positive p24 antigen result and a negative HIV antibody test

    3. Negative antibody test with either detectable HIV RNA or proviral DNA

    4. PHE RITA test algorithm (a) reported as "Incident" confirming the HIV-1 antibody avidity is consistent with recent infection (within the preceding 16 weeks).

    5. Weakly reactive or equivocal 4th generation HIV antibody antigen test

    6. Equivocal or reactive antibody test with <4 bands on western blot

    4. Adequate haemoglobin (Hb≥12g/dL for males, ≥11g/dL for females)

    5. Weight ≥50kg

    6. Willing to be treated with cART (preferably including raltegravir) and be randomised to continue cART alone or cART plus intervention (HIV vaccines plus HDACi)

    7. Willing and able to comply with visit schedule and provide blood sampling

    Exclusion criteria

    1. Women of child bearing potential (WCBP) (b)

    2. In women with intact ovaries and no uterus, any planned egg donation anytime in the future to a surrogate

    3. Intention to donate sperm or father a child within 6 months of the intervention

    4. Co-infection with hepatitis B (surface antigen positive or detectable HBV DNA levels in blood) or hepatitis C (HCV RNA positive or HVC antigen positive)

    5. Any current or past history of malignancy

    6. Concurrent opportunistic infection or other comorbidity or comorbidity likely to occur during the trial e.g.past history of ischaemic or other significant heart disease, malabsorption syndromes, autoimmune disease

    7. Any contraindication to receipt of BHIVA recommended combination antiretrovirals

    8. HIV-2 infection

    9. Known HTLV-1 co-infection

    10. Prior immunisation with any experimental HIV Immunogens (including any component of the vaccines used in the RIVER protocol; simian or human adenoviral vaccine; other experimental HIV vaccines)

    11. Current or planned systemic immunosuppressive therapy (inhaled corticosteroids are allowed)

    12. Any history of proven thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis)

    13. Any inherited or acquired bleeding diathesis including gastric or duodenal ulcers, varices

    14. Concurrent or planned use of any drugs contraindicated with vorinostat i.e. antiarrhythmics; any other drugs that prolong QTc; warfarin, aspirin, sodium valproate

    15. Prior intolerance of any of either the components of the vaccine or HDACi,

    16. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus defined as an HBA1C>7%

    17. Any congenital or acquired prolongation of the QTc interval, with normal defined as ≤0.44s (≤440ms)

    18. Participation in any other clinical trial of an experimental agent or any non-interventional study where additional blood draws are required; participation in an observational study is permitted

    19. Allergy to egg

    20. History of anaphylaxis or severe adverse reaction to vaccines

    21. Planned receipt of vaccines within 2 weeks of the first trial vaccination administered at PR week 00 (including vaccines such as yellow fever; hepatitis B, influenza)

    22. Abnormal blood test results at screening including:

    1. Moderate to severe hepatic impairment as defined by Child-Pugh classification

    2. ALT >5xULN

    3. Platelets <150x109/L

    4. eGFR <60 (c)

    5. uPCR >30 mg/mmol

    23. Physical and laboratory test findings: Evidence of organ dysfunction or any clinically significant deviation from normal in physical examination and/or vital signs that the investigator believes is a preclusion from enrolment into the study

    24. Active alcohol or substance use that, in the Investigator's opinion, will prevent adequate adherence with study requirements

    25. Insufficient venous access that will allow scheduled blood draws as per protocol

    1. using current cut-offs for optical density as defined by PHE

    2. females aged <20 years of age, and weighing <65kg and <168cm in height will need to have an estimation of blood volume (EBV) prior to enrolment, >3500mL before to participate. This circumstance is unlikely to arise as most women between the ages of 18 to 20 years would be of child-bearing potential (CBP) and excluded on that basis.

    3. eGFR is calculated by the local labs using CKD-EPI. Units ml/min/1.73m2.
Participant Exclusion Criteria
This is in the inclusion criteria above
This information is designed to help you decide whether this trial is of interest. In some cases it is provided as a link to more detailed patient information or it may still be awaited from the organisation running the trial. Please look again shortly if the information you need is not here or, if named, contact the researcher named above.
Trial Location(s)
Greater London
Trial Contact(s)
Primary Trial Contact
Sorry, this information is not available
Other Trial Contacts
Sorry, this information is not available
Countries Recruiting
United Kingdom
This information is designed to help you decide whether this trial is of interest. In some cases it is provided as a link to more detailed patient information or it may still be awaited from the organisation running the trial. Please look again shortly if the information you need is not here or, if named, contact the researcher named above.
Scientific Title
Research In Viral Eradication of HIV Reservoirs
EudraCT Number
Not available for this trial
  • Medical Research Council
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Cambridge
  • Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust
  • Royal Free Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
  • Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust
  • Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust
  • Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust
Other Study ID Numbers
Imperial College London
Key Dates

Recruitment Start Date

Nov 2015

Recruitment End Date

Nov 2017

Trial Start Date
Date Not Available
Trial End Date
Date Not Available
Date added to source

23 Oct 2014

Date updated in source

28 Feb 2018