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The IMPACT study is an international targeted prostate screening study of men at increased
prostate cancer risk due to the presence of known pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2
There are only approximately 150 men with a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in the UK.
Research has shown that these men are at an increased risk of developing prostate cancer but
more information is needed about the pathogenesis of prostate cancer in this defined group
and the role of screening in these men. The study will offer annual PSA screening to these
men to determine the incidence of prostate cancer in this group. The study will also look at
new markers of early prostate cancer in this cohort.
The power calculations for this study are 850 carriers and 850 controls (age-matched men
without BRCA1/2 mutations). It is therefore essential to gain international collaboration to
meet the target of recruiting 850 men with these known mutations and a control group of 850
men who have tested negative for a known familial mutation.
Prostate cancer is a significant public health problem. In the EU approximately 200,000 men
are diagnosed annually with prostate cancer. There are 24,000 cases per year in England and
Wales and 10,000 deaths. The incidence is increasing, even when screen-detected cancers are
considered, and within the next few years it will become the most common cancer in UK men.
that an alteration in the breast cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, may predispose
to prostate cancer (PC) and this study will increase this evidence-base. There is some
evidence, at least in BRCA2 carriers, that the prostate cancer in these men may be more
aggressive and so earlier detection could theoretically reduce mortality. It has been
reported that unaffected individuals from families with multiple cases of PC show an
increased percentage of raised PSA levels, but the use of PSA level and its predictive value
in healthy males with BRCA1/2 mutations has not been studied. If PSA were to be used as a
screening tool in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, we would need to gain a better understanding of
the pathogenesis of PC in these men and determine whether they have a different baseline PSA
profile compared with controls.
The high prevalence of hormone-dependent/secreting tumours such as breast, ovary and
prostate in BRCA1/2 carriers suggests an important role of hormones and their receptors in
the development of cancer. Androgens and androgen receptors are considered crucial elements
in PC pathogenesis. Therefore male sex hormones will be measured to determine the hormone
profile in BRCA1/2 carriers compared with a control group. There is strong evidence that
BRCA1/2 play an important role in DNA repair and cell cycling. Therefore, we will
investigate abnormalities of the metabolic processes in individuals with a BRCA1/2 mutation
where cell cycling may be abnormal. Analysis of proteins (proteomics) and metabolites
(metabonomics) are powerful approaches to identifying proteins and metabolites involved in
cancer formation. The analysis of the proteins and metabolites will enable us to investigate
the effect of the presence of a BRCA1/2 mutation and aid in the identification of new
biomarkers for prostate cancer.
The target population is a group of 850 males who carry a known pathogenic mutation in the
BRCA1/2 genes (500 BRCA1 and 350 BRCA2). These men will be recruited through genetics
clinics across the UK and the world. A control group of men who have tested negative for a
known pathogenic mutation that is running in their family will also be recruited through the
All participants will be invited to attend annually for 5 years for an appointment lasting
approximately 30 minutes during which they will discuss the study in detail before giving
their written consent agreeing to participate. They will have a 50ml blood sample taken and
be asked to provide a urine sample every year. They will also be required to complete a
short family and medical history questionnaire. These appointments will either take place at
the centre they are registered at, at the Royal Marsden Hospital, or in their own home
depending on the arrangements made with the collaborating consultant and patient preference.
The PSA level of all participants will be measured locally. If PSA is >3.0ng/ml, a ten core
prostatic biopsy will be offered, carried out by a consultant urologist. Ten biopsies will
be used for diagnostic purposes, with two extra biopsy samples taken for research analysis
with the patients fully informed written consent prior to the procedure being carried out.
If any of the ten cores identify the presence of prostate cancer, they will receive
treatment for this as advised by their local centre. The PSA will be quality controlled by
batch testing at a reference lab. If the value locally was <3.0ng/ml but is >3ng/ml in the
reference lab it will be remeasured locally.
If high grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) is detected or if the sample is
inconclusive then a sextant biopsy repeated after 6 weeks will be recommended, in accordance
with the ERSPC protocol. If atypical acini are detected then immediate biopsy will be
Observational Model: Case Control, Time Perspective: Prospective
Behavioral : PSA test, Procedure : Prostate Biopsy
Study Arm Groups : BRCA1/2 carriers, BRCA1/2/non Carriers, BRCA1/2 carriers, BRCA1/2/non Carriers
See Interventions above
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Mitra AV, Bancroft EK, Barbachano Y, Page EC, Foster CS, Jameson C, Mitchell G, Lindeman GJ, Stapleton A, Suthers G, Evans DG, Cruger D, Blanco I, Mercer C, Kirk J, Maehle L, Hodgson S, Walker L, Izatt L, Douglas F, Tucker K, Dorkins H, Clowes V, Male A, Donaldson A, Brewer C, Doherty R, Bulman B, Osther PJ, Salinas M, Eccles D, Axcrona K, Jobson I, Newcombe B, Cybulski C, Rubinstein WS, Buys S, Townshend S, Friedman E, Domchek S, Ramon Y Cajal T, Spigelman A, Teo SH, Nicolai N, Aaronson N, Ardern-Jones A, Bangma C, Dearnaley D, Eyfjord J, Falconer A, GrÃ¶nberg H, Hamdy F, Johannsson O, Khoo V, Kote-Jarai Z, Lilja H, Lubinski J, Melia J, Moynihan C, Peock S, Rennert G, SchrÃ¶der F, Sibley P, Suri M, Wilson P, Bignon YJ, Strom S, Tischkowitz M, Liljegren A, Ilencikova D, Abele A, Kyriacou K, van Asperen C, Kiemeney L; IMPACT Study Collaborators, Easton DF, Eeles RA. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study. BJU Int. 2011 Jan;107(1):28-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09648.x. Epub 2010 Sep 14.; 20840664
This is available on the Clinicaltrials.gov